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Metal Halide & Sodium Lamps

A lamp symbolizes the light of dignity with wisdom. Lamps are also a symbol of guidance. There are various devices which produces light or sometimes heat such as lamp, a device which is made up of an electric bulb together with its fitting and shade of cover.


There are many characteristics of a good lamp such as intensity should be equal to +/-10% which totally depends on batch, voltage should be equal to 20/21 Volts which is fully rated voltage, color temperature should be 3100 to 3400’K , mean light should be 42 to 6000hour and many more.


There are many types of lamps like:
• Incandescent lamps
• Tungsten lamps
• Halogen lamps
• Fluorescent lamps
• Compact fluorescent lamps
• Mercury Vapour lamps
• Metal Halide lamps
• High pressure sodium vapour lamp
• Low pressure sodium vapour lamp
• LED lamps

When we check a detailed description of metal halide lamps then we find that it’s a type of high intensity, discharge gas, discharge lamps which produces light through an electric arc by a gaseous mixture of vapourized mercury and metal halide.

The common metal halide compound which is used to made metal halide lamp is Sodium Iodide. The lamp consists of a fused, quartz or ceramic are tube which contains gas which is enclosed inside a larger glass bulb coated to filter out the ultraviolet light.


Metal Halide used for general lighting purpose both indoor and outdoor, automobile headlight which is commonly known as zenon head lamps and for indoor growing applications who needs a high intensity light source for their corals.

Metal Halide lamps are quite versatile and it can be also used for a wide range of lightning. It is also known as for its natural white light.

Metal Halide is made up of an arc tuber with electrodes in outer bulb and a base .

Its color depends upon the type of metal halide salt which is used to made the lamp.


Metal halide technology works by a passing electrical current by a mix of gasses, creating light. The bulb is made up of two primary parts namely: inner arc tube and outer bulb. When the lamp is off, the mercury and metal halide salts are liquidize inside the inner arc tube.

There are two electrode are on each end of the inner arc tube. When current passes the lamp from electrode to the another electrode it heats the mercury and metal halide salts content in the inner arc tube, its converts it to gas and their atoms move away from the electrical are by which they create light. This is why it takes 1 to 15 minutes to warm up a metal halide lamp.

Sodium vapour is a type of electrical lamp consisting of a glass tube containing neon and sodium vapour at low pressure in an excited state to produce orange light at a wavelength near 589nm. Basically there are two varieties of such lamps namely
• Low pressure sodium lamps
• High pressure Sodium lamps

These lamps are used in street lightning, industry lightning and specially manufacturing facilities which used as plant grow. They contains mercury .They are also used as outdoor area lights such as on roadways, parking lots , securities area. These lamps are some of the best efficient lamps in the world. They are very efficient in turning 1 watt of power into a whopping to 100lumens.


Low Pressure Sodium lamps have a borosilicate glass gas arc tube which contains solid sodium , a small amount of neon and argon gas in a Penning mixture to start the gas arc. These arc tube may be linear or U- shaped. When lamps sstarts, it emits the dim red/pink light to heat the sodium metal and after few minutes when sodium metal vaporizes the emission becomes the bright yellow color. Sodium vapour process is also referred as a yellow screen, a film technique realize on narrow bond characteristics of Low Pressure Sodium Lamps.

The color negative film is typically not sensitive to the yellow light from low power sodium lamps but specially black and white film is able to recorded.

Low Pressure Sodium Lights has consistently maintained its invincible position as the most of efficient light shows available on the Earth, but in recent years a slow declines shows in its market as many countries in the vicinity of important auto-nominal observation in the view of greatly reduced light pollution it causes.

Low Pressure Sodium Lamps and High Pressure Sodium Lamps belongs to high intensity discharge lamps which produce light by exciting gases and vapourizes metal with the use of current for exiciting them to produce light.

During a research, it was observed that as yellow surroundings provided by a Low Pressure Sodium Lamps iinstallation enhanced the noticibility of arc head directional science lighted with color contrast sources. It is commonly used as outdoor lightning because the yellow color does not attract insects but it also distorts.

High Pressure sodium Vapour Lamps are quite similar to Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps as they both are a type of gas discharge light. The tube is made up of aluminum oxide and sodium metal is combined with many other elements like necessary which balances the yellow glass color with some white to light blue color emissions.

Deficiencies in this lighting :-

• Sodium vapour light have the worst color rendering on the lamps market particularly Low Pressure Sodium Lamps which are monochromatic it means that the object was eliminated by them because of shadowy black color appearances rather than the color you would see during sun light.

• Sodium vapour light requires a warm up time period. Once the arc is ignited it melts and evaporates sodium metal salts to the device was light doesn’t arrive at full power until the salts are fully evapourated into plasma.

These lights are very reliable and efficient for industrial and other purposes. One needs to make a smart choice according to the needs and feasibility.